Fines on daydreaming

Late posting tsk tsk. Ĉi tiu semajno … malfacilis. Today is for three words I came across. I think they’re neat because of the way they are constructed. The meaning goes together nicely.

  1. pripensinda = worth thinking about
  2. revpensi = to think wishfully, to daydream unrealistic thoughts (the action noun form “revpensado” = “wishful thinking”)
  3. monpuni = to fine (to charge someone money as a penalty)

Here’s how they’re made, and hence why they’re neat!

  1. “pensi” = to think, “pri” means “about, concerning”. So “pripensi” is “to think about, to consider”. The suffix “-ind” means “worthy of <root>”. So something which is “pripensinda” is worthy of consideration, worth thinking about.
  2. “revo” = “dream, daydream”. So to “revpensi” is to think in a way characterised by dreaming, or daydreaming.
  3. “puni” = “to punish, to correct”, and “mono” = “money”. So the action “monpuni” is to perform some kind of correction or punishment, characterised by money. I.e. the taking of it!

Clutch of eggs

All about Da! “Da” is mostly translated as “of”, but it has a very specific use all to itself. Keep an eye out and you may just find a future post about “de”, which is another word often translated as “of”.

Basically, “da” is used to relate some quantity to some type of thing. In a phrase:

  • X da Y = X of Y

X is some quantity and Y is a type of thing. The phrase shows that you have X amount of Y. X must be a quantity and Y must be an indefinite type.

So X is easy, it could be a bunch, a little, a dozen, a litre, a box, a lot, a flask, you get the idea!

What’s Y though? What’s indefinite? The answer is, Y must only be a type of thing, a concept of a thing, it can’t be a particular group of things. So in the title “a clutch of eggs”, Y is eggs. Eggs is indefinite. “Eggs” does not refer to any particular eggs at all. It’s just talking about the concept of eggs. Then with “da” we take some portion of this type of thing, eggs.

  • skatolo da ovoj = a box of eggs

If we’re talking about certain eggs, and not just the general idea of eggs for Y, then “da” cannot be used!

  • Mi ŝtelis skatolon el viaj ovoj = I stole a box of your eggs

Here Y is “your eggs”, those are particular eggs, not just the concept of eggs. Therefore, “da” cannot be used!

Additional notes:

Numbers are quantities, but they are allowed to directly refer to nouns, so you don’t need a “da”:

  • Mi havas du ovojn = I have two eggs
  • Mi havas skatolon da ovoj = I have a box of eggs

The exception is when you’ve got a number that in noun form (ending in “o”), then it acts like a grouping:

  • Mi havas milionon da ovoj = I have a million (of)  eggs.

This is because a noun cannot describe another noun I believe!

If X is an adjective (a-word), it is allowed to directly describe the noun (Y), so you do not use “da”:

  • Mi havas multajn ovojn = Mi havas multe/multon da ovoj = I have a lot of eggs

Why is it possible to say “glaso da vino” and “glaso de vino” ?

Because they mean different things!

Following from a couple examples from the PMEG:

“Glaso de vino” is more like “wine glass” – a glass in which wine was present, or is usually present. And “glaso da vino” uses “glaso” as a quantity, it’s a glass-sized amount of wine, or a glass full of wine, a “glass of wine”.

In such cases, “da” and “de” answer different questions:

  • How many soldiers are there? – Grupo da soldatoj (A group of soldiers)
  • What kind of group is that? – Grupo de soldatoj (A group of soldiers)

Word building on fire

I was pleased today. I decided that I wanted to know how to say “to kindle” (as in start a fire) in Esperanto. And instead of looking it up, I tried to think of the most logical way of constructing it…

Okay so I need to start with “to burn” (bruli), but this means, that the subject is burning (mi brulas = I am burning: i’m actually on fire, not burning something else). So I need to make it “cause something to burn”, by adding the appropriate suffix “bruligi” = “to burn (something)”. Then I need to add in the idea of the burning just starting, “ekbruligi”! (see post on ek).

The reason I was pleased, is that I then looked up this word, and found its entry in the dictionary to mean exactly as I planned! I think I’m really understanding word building now.

I really like the rhythm of the word “ekbruligi” too! It’s nice and bouncy.

Oh, by the way

Awesome word today: parenteze (pronounced pa-ren-TE-ze)

It means “by the way”.

The reason it’s awesome in my opinion, is because it makes way more sense (i.e. what do we actually mean by, “by the way”?? What way??).

We often use “by the way” to introduce a parenthetical statement (a statement which is not grammatically necessary, and is like an afterthought, or additional explanation. This was in fact a parenthetical statement by the way, and it is placed in parentheses (in brackets (another parenthetical statement)).

The Esperanto word for “parenthesis” is “parentezo”. By changing the noun ending “o” to the adverb ending “e”, we make the word more like “in a parenthetical manner, parenthetically” in other words, “by the way”!

Prepositions out alone, don’t forget your “e”s

Having a good day is easy when even a new grammatical idea can make you grin. I came across a description in the PMEG today of something that I’ve seen evidence of here and there, and is quite intuitive, but was nice to see the logic behind it.

Prepositions (little words that determine the role of other words in a sentence), can’t really stand alone, as in this phrases where “…” would be replaced with the thing that is in that place:

  • … sur la seĝo = … on the chair
  • … en la melejo = … in the badger den
  • … apud la melo = … near the badger
  • … post la manĝo = … after the meal
  • … dum la manĝo = … during the meal
  • … ekster la kaverno = …outside the cavern

You can’t just go:

  • Mi estas en = I am in…
  • Ĝi estas post = it is after…
  • Mi estas apud = I am near…
  • Mi kuros dum = I will run during…

These are just incomplete sentences! We do all sorts of things to the words in English to make them make sense, but you just add an “e”  to the prepositions in Esperanto (to make them into adverbs, which are allowed to go out alone):

  • Mi estas ene = I am inside
  • La manĝo estas poste = The meal is afterwards
  • Mi estas apude = I am nearby
  • Mi kuros dume = I will run in the meantime/meanwhile

This is helping me to see how to choose between these different ways of expression!

How do I say Andy in Esperanto?

Surprise Sunday Stuff! I was thoroughly amused by the “site stats” of my blog today. You may know that wordpress tells the blog owner which search terms people use that lead them to their site. And today, someone found my blog by searching with the words “how do I say Andy in Esperanto”!

I decided to write a little weekend post about some of the ways people have found me via search!

Two reasons you might want to Esperantisize your name, are:

  1. To be able to use it like any other Esperanto word (apply suffixes etc.): maybe use “Andreo” for “Andrew” (all nouns must end in “o”, and all names are nouns!). Then you can say: ŝi rigardis Andreon (she looked at Andrew).
  2. To make it obvious to a person who doesn’t share your native tongue, but does know Esperanto, how to pronounce your name. So I might use “Andi” for “Andy”, because Esperanto doesn’t have a “y”, and I expect people to pronounce “Andy” as in the made up Esperanto word “Andi”

You might also get “Andy” by applying a diminutive to “Andreo”, like how in English we got from “Jonathan” to “Johnny”. You just chop the word an put “ĉjo” on the end (“njo” for the ladies):

  • Andreo, Andreĉjo, Anĉjo

Though while I really do like “njo”, I’m not to0 keen on “ĉj”.

Search: “Should i revisit an old flame?”

They found me because a long while ago, I made a post with a similar title here. I doubt they were expecting to find someone blabbing on about Esperanto!

Search: “Adjectives for frolicking”

I can’t help it. When I get excited, grammatical concepts and words take up strange forms of their own, and they end up being described in odd ways. As in my previous post: Adjectives and their Antics.

Search: “Esperanto word attraction” 

Having an entire category called “Alluring Words” probably set me up for this one!

Search: “My heart beats fast – transitive or intransitive”

Intransitive! Fast is just an adverb modifying the verb (the beating is fast); it’s not a direct object. The heart is doing the beating, it’s a state that the heart is in, it’s not doing the action to something else.

Search: “Badger in esperanzo”

Aside from the spelling error, I have noticed a large number of my examples being invaded by badgers… Troubling.

Chocolate born to chirp

A desire suddenly happened upon me to look up pleasant-sounding words with the letters “ĝ” and “ĉ” in them, which respectively are pronounced as “g” in “gem” and “ch” in “chin”.

So here are some that I’ve found, and enjoy the sound of:

  1. Ŝanĝiĝi = (Shan-JEE-jee) to change (not change something else. The subject of this verb is the thing that’s changing). E.g. nun ke li havas amanto, li ŝanĝiĝis = now that he has a lover, he has changed (he  changed, became changed). From “ŝanĝi” = “to change (something into something), plus “-iĝi” = “to become <root>”, so “ŝanĝiĝi” = “to become changed into something”.
  2. Naskiĝi = (Nask-EE-jee) to be born.
  3. Ĉokolado = (Cho-ko-LA-do) Chocolate.
  4. Ĉasaĵo =  (Cha-SA-zho, where “zh” is pronounced like “s” in “pleasure”) game, quarry (in a hunt). “Ĉasi” = “to chase/hunt”, and the suffix “-aĵ” means a concrete thing characterised by the root word. Therefore “Ĉasaĵo” is a thing that is chased/hunted, i.e. quarry.
  5. Ĉifi = (CHEE-fee) to crumble, crease (something).
  6. Ĉirpi = (CHEER-pee) to chirp.

In 1, I love the “jee-jee” bit, especially when you have the word in past tense “ŝanĝiĝis”, finishing with the “s” makes it sound very flowing to me.

In 2, I think I almost like the “nask” sound almost as much as “ĝ”!

3 sounds bumpy in a rhythmic way, it’s kinda fun to say over and over…

4 and 5 are generally quite pleasing to pronounce, but the “ĉir” in 6 is my favourite sound out of the three. There’s something much more pleasing about its sound than how “chir” would be pronounced in English (“chirp” sounds so bland in comparison).