Time to discuss uses of the suffix “aĵ”! By attaching this to a root, you make a word into a concrete thing (a definite instantiation) of the meaning of the root (Compare to the suffix “ec” which shows an abstract quality or state of the meaning of the root. Future post!)
The weird “ĵ” letter is pronounced like a french “j”. If you don’t know what this sounds like, then it’s also like the “s” in the English word “pleasure”.
I think it’s one of my favourite letters. I already loved “J”, but J with a circumflex above it? Splendid!
Okay. Your main use of “aĵ” is on quality-like roots (the ones that are naturally adjectives, see my post on the matter). Some examples are courtesy of PMEG, the main reference for this post.
- bela = beautiful, belaĵo = a particularly beautiful thing, an instantiation of beauty
- utila = useful, utilaĵo = a concrete thing which is useful
- saĝa = wise, saĝaĵo = a concrete thing characterised by wisdom. Maybe a piece of wisdom (e.g. a saying)
See how a particular quality becomes an instantiation of that quality?
It can also be used on action-like roots (the ones that prefer being verbs). In this case the meaning is more varied. It can be a thing which is the result of the action, or does the action, or is used by the action, or is the object of the action, and more!
- fari = to do/make, faraĵo = something that was done/made, is being done or made, or will be done/made.
- desegni = to design/draw, desegnaĵo = something that was designed/drawn, a picture.
- bruli = to burn, brulaĵo = something which burns
- kovri = to cover, kovraĵo = something with which one covers
- manĝi = to eat, manĝaĵo = something to eat, food.
Notice how with “fari”, “faraĵo” can be all sorts of variations on a theme (i.e. whether the thing was done, will be done, or is being done now). It is possible to be more specific using participles (adjectives made from verbs). More details in future posts but:
- farataĵo = something that is being done/made
- faritaĵo = something that was done/made
- farotaĵo = something that will be done
Sometimes when you make a noun by using the “o” suffix, the new word can mean several things.
- konstrui = to build/construct
- konstruo = the action of building, manner of building, a built something (e.g. house)
If you wish to be more specific, “aĵ” can be your friend.
- konstruaĵo = a built something
It reflects only the concrete manifestation meaning.
“Aĵ” can be used on all sorts of words to make an instantiation of something to do with the root.
I quite like one of the examples from PMEG:
- mi = I
- miaĵo = something that concerns me, or which belongs to me
It can even be used on words that are already concrete manifestations, like:
- aŭto = car
- aŭtaĵo = a car thing (thingy-majig!), some specific thing related to cars.
Another use you’ll find is on animal roots, in order to make the corresponding food:
- porko = pig, porkaĵo = pork
And by itself as a noun “aĵo”, it means a concrete thing (of arbitrary type)!