Clutch of eggs

All about Da! “Da” is mostly translated as “of”, but it has a very specific use all to itself. Keep an eye out and you may just find a future post about “de”, which is another word often translated as “of”.

Basically, “da” is used to relate some quantity to some type of thing. In a phrase:

  • X da Y = X of Y

X is some quantity and Y is a type of thing. The phrase shows that you have X amount of Y. X must be a quantity and Y must be an indefinite type.

So X is easy, it could be a bunch, a little, a dozen, a litre, a box, a lot, a flask, you get the idea!

What’s Y though? What’s indefinite? The answer is, Y must only be a type of thing, a concept of a thing, it can’t be a particular group of things. So in the title “a clutch of eggs”, Y is eggs. Eggs is indefinite. “Eggs” does not refer to any particular eggs at all. It’s just talking about the concept of eggs. Then with “da” we take some portion of this type of thing, eggs.

  • skatolo da ovoj = a box of eggs

If we’re talking about certain eggs, and not just the general idea of eggs for Y, then “da” cannot be used!

  • Mi ŝtelis skatolon el viaj ovoj = I stole a box of your eggs

Here Y is “your eggs”, those are particular eggs, not just the concept of eggs. Therefore, “da” cannot be used!

Additional notes:

Numbers are quantities, but they are allowed to directly refer to nouns, so you don’t need a “da”:

  • Mi havas du ovojn = I have two eggs
  • Mi havas skatolon da ovoj = I have a box of eggs

The exception is when you’ve got a number that in noun form (ending in “o”), then it acts like a grouping:

  • Mi havas milionon da ovoj = I have a million (of)  eggs.

This is because a noun cannot describe another noun I believe!

If X is an adjective (a-word), it is allowed to directly describe the noun (Y), so you do not use “da”:

  • Mi havas multajn ovojn = Mi havas multe/multon da ovoj = I have a lot of eggs

Why is it possible to say “glaso da vino” and “glaso de vino” ?

Because they mean different things!

Following from a couple examples from the PMEG:

“Glaso de vino” is more like “wine glass” – a glass in which wine was present, or is usually present. And “glaso da vino” uses “glaso” as a quantity, it’s a glass-sized amount of wine, or a glass full of wine, a “glass of wine”.

In such cases, “da” and “de” answer different questions:

  • How many soldiers are there? – Grupo da soldatoj (A group of soldiers)
  • What kind of group is that? – Grupo de soldatoj (A group of soldiers)
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12 thoughts on “Clutch of eggs

  1. You should also make a note that “da” cannot be used with the “-om” correlatives. I see that mistake lots.

    • The word on the right of the ‘da’ need not be abstract in the sense you are thinking. It is only abstract in the sense that it is a ‘type’ of thing. You cannot be referring to a specific group, or certain set of things when using ‘da’.

      ‘Soldiers’ is a type of thing. When we are saying how many instances of that type there are, we use ‘da’.

      ‘Grupo da soldatoj’ means there is a ‘group’ where the members of the group are of type ‘soldier’. This group isn’t extracted from a specific set of soldiers; you wouldn’t use ‘da’ if the term on the right was ‘the soldiers over there’.

      In ‘Grupo da soldatoj’, the ‘soldiers’ bit is only telling you a type, so ‘da’ is appropriate.

      Does this make sense? I could try to elaborate further if need be.:)

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