For the sake of future posts, word roots are the topic for today.
An important concept in Esperanto is this. The main type of word is the root word, and from this root word (through all kinds of magic) we can create a verb form to talk about actions, or adjective form to talk about descriptions and many more. We can even throw the roots together to build more complex words.
But the main point today, is one that has only been touched on in previous posts. That is, that roots are not these neutral creatures that have no properties or characteristics of their own until they receive their suffixes that make them into verbs/adjectives/nouns etc.
Don’t get me wrong, you’ll rarely see a root by itself twiddling its thumbs. They do in most cases need these suffixes.
However, they do have their own properties. There are different classifications of root word. And depending on which classification a word lies in, they act in different ways when different affixes are applied to them.
An example in the PMEG is the comparison between “brosi” (to brush) and “kombi” (to comb). Their roots are “bros-” and “komb-“. The “i” shows that they are being used as verb infinitives (as in “I want to comb/brush my hair”).
So what happens when we change them to nouns with our handy noun suffix “o”?
“broso” means “(a) brush”. However, “kombo” means… The action of combing!!! As in “My hair needs a combing”. Why? We did exactly the same thing, with very similar words! But different result.
It’s all because of the roots. “Komb-” is an action-like root. “Bros-” is a thing-like root. When you add the noun ending to a thing root (bros) it just means the thing. But when you add it to an action root, it means “the action of <root>”. There are other ways to achieve what we want with these roots: knowing that “komb-” is an action root, but that we want the word for “comb” we can use the tool-like suffix “il”, “Kombilo” means “(a) comb”. Conversely, we can use the continual action suffix “ad” on “bros-” if we wanted “the action of brushing”, “brosado”.
There are three main classes with respect to the the characteristics above: action-like, quality-like, and thing-like.
Though we could define subcategories. Since within the class of thing-like words, for example, there are tool words, profession words, people words, animal words. All of these will have slightly different interactions (that are usually quite obvious don’t worry).
The point of this post is to create awareness of this fact rather than talk about all possible different interactions of these words (Or I’d be basically translating the PMEG). I’ll give you a few examples of the different roots, and in future posts I will talk about interesting things you can do with different roots. For example, it’s not always enough to say “oh this suffix changes the meaning of words to X”. Often one must say “When applied to quality-like roots the meaning is X, with thing-like roots Y…” (Check out this post, which shows how the verb ending interacts with a few different root classes).
Quality-like roots inherently show description, the quality or characteristics of something:
- blu-: blua = blue
- saĝ-: saĝa = wise
- bel-: bela = beautiful
These words naturally lend themselves to the “a” ending of adjectives, describing words.
Action-like roots inherently show action, or state.
- kur-: kuri = to run
- rid-: ridi = to laugh
- kant-: kanti = to sing
The words naturally lend themselves to the “i” ending of verb infinitives (and other verb endings). The “i” shows you the action you expect from the root, and then other affixes will derive meaning from the different interpretations of the action.
Thing-like roots are those that fit into neither of the above, being about either concrete things, or concepts.
- tabl-: tablo = (a) table
- hund-: hundo = (a) dog
They lend themselves to the noun ending “o”. They will action differently than the previous categories when participating in word building.