The magic of the verbal ending

We can tell a verb infinitive apart with the ending ‘i’:

helpi = to help

kuri  = to run

marŝi = to walk

As with the other endings, you can make a word a verb by exchanging its current ending for the verbal ending “i” (Similar to what I did with blua in a previous post):

diro = statement, remark

diri = to say, to tell

What’s great is that the created verb takes on the most useful sense of verb from the type of word it is given.

Here’s some examples:

1. If the root is an action, like “kur-” (kuro = a run), then its verbal form will mean “to do the action”, in this case “kuri” = “to run”.

2. If the root is a description, or quality, like “blu-” (blua = blue), then its verbal form will mean “to be in the state”, in this case “blui” = “to be blue”.

3. If the root is some kind of tool, or apparatus, like “bros-” (broso = brush), then its verbal form will mean “to use the tool (in usual manner)”, in this case “brosi” = “to brush”

4. If the root is a substance, like “akv-” (akvo = water), then its verbal form will mean “to provide with the substance”, in this case “akvi” = “to water, to provide water”.

5. If the root is a person, or type of person, like “tajlor-” (tajloro = tailor), then its verbal form will mean “to act in the manner of the person”, in this case “tajlori” = “to tailor”.

Parts of Speech Fun

One of the things that I always find myself doing in English, is the blatant overuse of the suffixes “-esque” and “-ly”. I use them often without care as to whether they make a proper word or not! For some reason I just find it useful to be able to make an adjective or adverb from other parts of speech.

“-esque” often makes a noun into an adjective (we often achieve the same thing by using “-like”):

European –> European-esque

Neanderthal –> Neanderthal-like

“-ly” often makes an adverb, in order to describe the manner in which an action occurs:

Happy –> Happily

There are so many exceptions to the rule if you want to do it properly in English. But it’s so simple in Esperanto! There are only a small amount of Esperanto words that do not have a suffix marking something like their part of speech (“o” = noun, “i” = verb).

All you have to do to make a word into an adverb is change it’s part of speech letter to “e”, or for an adjective “a”.

Amiko = friend

Amika = friendly

Amike = friendily